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Profiles

Josette  Bellan's Picture
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory
M/S 125-109
4800 Oak Grove Dr.
Pasadena, CA 91109
http://sec353.jpl.nasa.gov/JosetteBellan
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Dr. Josette Bellan

Education
  • Ph.D. 1974, Princeton University
  • MA, MS, 1972, Princeton University
  • MS, AEA, 1969, University of Sciences, Paris

Research Interests
Multiphase Flow Phenomena, Fluid Behavior, Phase Change, Heat Transfer, Combustion, Numerical Techniques

Professional Experience
Current Positions
  • Senior Research Scientist, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
  • Visiting Associate, Mechanical and Civil Engineering Department, Caltech
Professional Society Memberships
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Fellow since 2008
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Fellow since 1988
  • The Combustion Institute
  • Institute for Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems - North and South America
Journal Editorial Service
  • ATOMIZATION AND SPRAYS, Editorial Board
  • PROGRESS IN ENERGY AND COMBUSTION SCIENCE, Deputy Editor
  • AIAA JOURNAL (1998-2004), Associate Editor
Teaching
  • Lecturer at the California Institute of Technology, 1992-1993
  • Chancellor’s Distinguished Lecturer at the University of California, Irvine, 1995-1996

Selected Awards
  • At JPL: 154 NASA Certificates of Recognition for best journal publications and conference proceedings within NASA, published as NASA Tech Briefs
  • JPL Technology and Applications Program Exceptional Service Award, 1995
  • At Princeton: Amelia Earhart Fellowship, 1971-74 (remains an Amelia Earhart Fellow)
  • At the University of Sciences of Paris: Bourse du Troisième Cycle, 1968-69.
  • Marshall Award for the best paper from the Americas at ICLASS 2000.

Selected Publications
Refereed Journals
  1. “A Theory of Turbulent Flame Development and Nitric Oxide Formation in Stratified Charge Internal Combustion Engines,” (J. Rosentweig and W. A. Sirignano), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 8, 51 68, 1973
  2. “Combustion and NO Formation in a Stratified Charge Engine: A Two Turbulent Equations Model,” (J. Rosentweig Bellan and W. A. Sirignano), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 12, 75 104, 1976
  3. “On the Quasi Steady Gas Phase Assumption for a Burning Droplet,” (J. Bellan and M. Summerfield), AIAA Journal, 14, 7, 973, 1976
  4. “Model for Studying Unsteady Droplet Combustion,” (J. Bellan and M. Summerfield), AIAA Journal, 15, 2, 234 242, 1977
  5. “Theoretical Examination of Assumptions Commonly Used for the Gas Phase Surrounding a Burning Droplet,” (J. Bellan, and M. Summerfield), Combust. and Flame, 33, 107 122, 1978
  6. “A Preliminary Theoretical Study of Droplet Extinction by Depressurization,” (J. Bellan and M. Summerfield), Combust. and Flame, 33, 257 270, 1978
  7. “Linear Finite element Numerical Techniques for Combustion Problems Requiring Variable Step Size,” (H. Sandusky, J. Bellan, T. J. Ohlemiller and R. Vichnevetsky), Combust. and Flame, 36, 193 196, 1979
  8. “A Model of Smoldering Combustion Applied to Flexible Polyurethane Foams,” (T. J. Ohlemiller, J. Bellan and F. Rogers), Combust. and Flame, 36, 197 215, 1979
  9. “A Theory of Non Dilute Spray Evaporation Based Upon Multiple Drop Interaction,” (J. Bellan and R. Cuffel), Combust. and Flame, 51, No. 1, 55 67, 1983
  10. “A New Approach to Soot Control in Diesel Engines by Fuel Drop Charging,” (J. Bellan), Combust. and Flame, 51, No. 1, 117 119, 1983
  11. “Fuel Composition Effects on High Temperature Corrosion in Industrial/Commercial Boilers and Furnaces: a Review,” (J. Bellan and S. Elghobashi), J. of Eng. for Gas Turbines and Power, 107, 744 757, 1985
  12. “Evaluation of the Importance of the Relative Velocity During Evaporation of Drops in Sprays,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 29, 4, 647 651, 1986
  13. “Analysis of the Convective Evaporation of Non Dilute Sprays,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 30, 1, 125 136, 1987
  14. “The Details of the Convective Evaporation of Dense and Dilute Clusters of Drops,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 30, No. 6, 1083 1093, June, 1987
  15. “Ignition of Non Dilute Clusters of Drops in Convective Flows,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 53, 2 3, 75 92, 1987
  16. “A Simplified Description of Char Combustion,” (M. Loewenberg, J. Bellan and G. R. Gavalas), Chem. Eng. Comm., 58, 89 103, 1987
  17. “Turbulence Effects During Evaporation of Drops in Clusters,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 31, 8, 1655 1668, 1988
  18. “Electrostatic Dispersion of Drops in Clusters,” (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 63, 4-6, 169-181, 1989
  19. “Transport Related Phenomena for Clusters of Drops,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 32, 10, 2000-2002, 1989
  20. “Evaporation, Ignition and Combustion of Non Dilute Clusters of Drops,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Combust. and Flame, 79, 272-286, 1990
  21. “The Dynamics of Dense and Dilute Clusters of Drop Evaporating in Large, Coherent Vortices,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Proc. of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 23, 1375-1381, 1990
  22. “A Model of the Evaporation of Binary-Fuel Clusters of Drops,” (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Atomization and Sprays, 1, 367-388, 1991
  23. “Unsteady Evaporation and Combustion of a Drop Cloud Inside a Vortex,” (F. Fichot, K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combust. and Flame, 98, 5-11, 1994
  24. “Entrainment and Evaporation of Drops in the Laminar Part of a Two-Dimensional Developing Mixing Layer,” (F. Fichot, J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Proc. of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 25, 397-405, 1994
  25. “Steady Injection of Identical Clusters of Evaporating Drops Embedded in Jet Vortices,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Atomization and Sprays, 5(1), 1-16, 1995
  26. “Unsteady Injection of Sequences of Drop Clusters in Vortices Depicting Portions of a Spray,” (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Atomization and Sprays, 5(1), 17-44, 1995
  27. “Ignition of a Binary-Fuel (Solvent-Solute) Cluster of Drops”, (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 110-111, 531-548, 1995
  28. “Analysis of Reaction Products and Conversion Time in the Pyrolysis of Cellulose and Wood Particles”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 119, 331-373, 1996
  29. “External Cluster Combustion of Binary-Fuel Drops”, (J. Bellan), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 120, 213-236, 1996
  30. “Electrostatic Dispersion and Evaporation of Clusters of Drops of High-Energy Fuel for Soot Control”, (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Proc. of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 26, 1713-1722, 1996
  31. “Behavior of a Polydisperse Cluster of Interacting Drops in an Inviscid Vortex”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Int. J. of Multiphase Flow, 23(5), 899-925, 1997
  32. “Efficient High-Pressure State Equations”, (K. Harstad, R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), A.I.Ch.E. J., 43(6), 1605-1610, 1997
  33. “A Generalized Biomass Pyrolysis Model Based on Cellulose, Hemicellulose and Lignin Kinetics”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 126(1-6), 97-138, 1997
  34. “Tar Yield and Collection from the Pyrolysis of Large Biomass Particles”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), Combust. Sci. and Tech., 127(1-6), 97-118, 1997
  35. “Numerical Simulation of a Vortex Pyrolysis Reactor for Condensable Tar Production from Biomass”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), Energy and Fuels, 12(1), 25-40, 1998
  36. “Isolated Liquid Oxygen Drop Behavior in Fluid Hydrogen at Rocket Chamber Pressures”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Int. J Heat and Mass Transfer, 41, 3537-3550, 1998
  37. “Interactions of Liquid Oxygen Drops in Fluid Hydrogen at Rocket Chamber Pressures”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Int. J Heat and Mass Transfer, 41, 3551-3558, 1998
  38. “Dispersion (Electrostatic/Mechanical) and Fuel Properties Effects on Soot Propensity in Clusters of Drops”, (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Atomization and Sprays, 8, 601-624, 1998
  39. “Evaluation of Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Evaporation Models for Many Droplet Gas-Liquid Flow Simulations”, (R. S. Miller, K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Int. J. of Multiphase Flow, 24, 1025-1055, 1998
  40. “On the Validity of the Assumed PDF Method for Modeling Binary Mixing/Reaction of Evaporated Vapor in Gas/Liquid-Droplet Turbulent Shear Flow”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 27, 1065-1072, 1998
  41. “High-Energy-Density Fuel Blending Strategies and Drop Dispersion for Fuel Cost Reduction and Soot Propensity Control”, (J. Bellan and K. Harstad), Atomization and Sprays, 9(4), 371-383,1999
  42. “Direct Numerical Simulation of a Confined Three-Dimensional Gas Mixing Layer with One Evaporating Hydrocarbon-Droplet Laden Stream”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 384, 293-338, 1999
  43. “The Lewis Number Under Supercritical Conditions”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 42, 961-970, 1999
  44. “Direct Numerical Simulation and Subgrid Analysis of a Transitional Droplet Laden Mixing Layer”, (R. S. Miller and J. Bellan), Physics of Fluids, 12(3), 650-671, 2000
  45. “An All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model Applied to a Binary Mixture: Heptane in Nitrogen”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Int. J. of Multiphase Flow, 26(10), 1675-1706, 2000
  46. “A Priori Subgrid Analysis of Temporal Mixing Layers with Evaporating Droplets”, (Nora Okong’o and Josette Bellan), Physics of Fluids, 12(6), 1573-1591, 2000
  47. “Supercritical (and Subcritical) Fluid Behavior and Modeling: Drops, Streams, Shear and Mixing Layers, Jets and Sprays”, (J. Bellan), Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 26(4-6), 329-366, 2000
  48. “Entropy Production of Emerging Turbulent Scales in a Temporal Supercritical n-Heptane/Nitrogen Three-Dimensional Mixing Layer”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28, 497-504, 2000
  49. “Modeling and Simulation of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Containing Particle Mixtures”, (D. Lathouwers and J. Bellan), Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28, 2297-2304, 2000
  50. “Perspectives on Large Eddy Simulations for Sprays: Issues and Solutions”, (J. Bellan), Atomization and Sprays, 10, 409-425, 2000
  51. “The d2 Variation for Isolated LOX Drops and Polydisperse Clusters in Hydrogen at High Temperature and Pressures”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 124, 535-550, 2001
  52. “Direct Numerical Simulations of Supercritical Fluid Mixing Layers Applied to Heptane – Nitrogen”, (R. S. Miller, K. Harstad and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 436, 1-39, 2001
  53. “Evaluation of commonly used assumptions for isolated and cluster heptane drops in nitrogen at all pressures”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 127 (1 – 2), 1861-1879, 2001
  54. “Modeling of Dense Gas-Solid Reactive Mixtures Applied to Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed”, (D. Lathouwers and J. Bellan), Int. Journal of Multiphase Flow, 27(12), 2155-2187, 2001
  55. “Yield Optimization and Scaling of Fluidized Beds for Tar Production from Biomass”, (D. Lathouwers and J. Bellan), Energy and Fuels, 15(5), 1247-1262, 2001
  56. “Consistent Boundary Conditions for Multicomponent Real Gas Mixtures Based on Characteristic Waves”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Journal of Computational Physics, 176(2), 330-344, 2002
  57. “Direct Numerical Simulations of O2/H2 Temporal Mixing Layers under Supercritical Conditions”, (N. Okong’o, K. Harstad and J. Bellan), AIAA J., 40(5), 914-926, 2002
  58. “Direct Numerical Simulation of a Transitional Supercritical Mixing Layer: Heptane and Nitrogen”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 464, 1-34, 2002
  59. “Direct Numerical Simulations of Two-phase Laminar Jet Flows with Different Cross-Section Injection Geometries”, (H. Abdel-Hameed and J. Bellan), Phys. Fluids, 14(10), 3655-3674, 2002
  60. “A posteriori assessment of assumptions used in the modeling of dense reactive granular flows”, (D. Lathouwers and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 131(3), 353-356, 2002
  61. “On decoupling of Shvab-Zel’dovich variables in the presence of diffusion”, (Lam, S. H. and Bellan, J.), Combustion and Flame, 132(4), 691-696, 2003
  62. “A statistical model of multicomponent-fuel drop evaporation for many-droplet gas-liquid flow simulations”, (K. G. Harstad, P. C. Le Clercq and J. Bellan), AIAA J., 41(10), 1858-1874, 2003
  63. “Real-gas effects on mean flow and temporal stability of binary-species mixing layers”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), AIAA J., 41(12), 2429-2443, 2003
  64. “Consistent Large Eddy Simulation of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops. Part 1: Direct Numerical Simulation, formulation and a priori analysis”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 499, 1-47, 2004
  65. “High-Pressure Binary Mass-Diffusion Coefficients for Combustion Applications”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Ind. & Eng. Chem. Res., 43(2), 645-654, 2004
  66. “Mixing rules for multicomponent mixture mass diffusion coefficients and thermal diffusion factors”, (K. G. Harstad and J. Bellan), Journal of Chemical Physics, 120(12), 5664-5673, 2004
  67. “Modeling evaporation of Jet A, JP-7 and RP-1 drops at 1 to 15 bars”, (K. G. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 137(1-2), 163-177, 2004
  68. “Perturbation and initial Reynolds number effects on transition attainment of supercritical mixing layers”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Computers & Fluids, 33(8), 1023-1046, 2004
  69. “Turbulence and fluid-front area production in binary-species, supercritical, transitional mixing layers”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Phys. Fluids, 16(5), 1467-1492, 2004
  70. “Direct numerical simulation of a transitional temporal mixing layer laden with multicomponent-fuel evaporating drops using continuous thermodynamics”, (P. C. Le Clercq and J. Bellan), Phys. Fluids, 16(6), 1884-1907, 2004
  71. “Modeling of multicomponent homogeneous nucleation utilizing continuous thermodynamics”, (K. G. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 139(3), 252-262, 2004
  72. “Modeling of multicomponent-fuel drop-laden mixing layers having a multitude of species”, (P. C. Le Clercq and J. Bellan), Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 30, 2007-2015, 2005
  73. “Consistent Large Eddy Simulation of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops. Part 2: A posteriori modeling”, (A. Leboissetier, N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 523, 37-78, 2005
  74. “Direct numerical simulation of gaseous mixing layers laden with multicomponent-liquid drops: Liquid-specific effects”, (P. C. Le Clercq and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 533, 57-94; 540, 439; 2005
  75. “Theory, modeling and analysis of turbulent supercritical mixing”, (J. Bellan), Combustion Science and Technology, 178, 253-281, 2006
  76. “Global analysis and parametric dependencies for potential hydrogen-fuel unintended releases”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 144, 89-102, 2006
  77. “On possible release of microbe-containing particulates from a Mars lander spacecraft”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Planetary and Space Science, 54, 273-286, 2006
  78. “Scalar dissipation modeling for passive and active scalars: a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation”, (L. C. Selle and J. Bellan), Proc. Comb. Inst., 31, 1665-1673, 2007
  79. “Evaluation of assumed-PDF methods in two-phase flows using Direct Numerical Simulation”, (L. C. Selle and J. Bellan), Proc. Comb. Inst., 31, 2273-2281, 2007
  80. “Characteristics of transitional multicomponent gaseous and drop-laden mixing layers from Direct Numerical Simulation: Composition effects”, (L. C. Selle and J. Bellan), Phys. Fluids, 19(6), doi: 10.1063/1.2734997, 063301- 1-33, 2007
  81. “Modeling of subgrid scale phenomena in supercritical transitional mixing layers: an a priori study”, (L. C. Selle, N. A. Okong’o, J. Bellan and K. G. Harstad), J. Fluid Mech., 593, 57-91, 2007
  82. “Detailed Characteristics of Drop-Laden Mixing Layers: LES Predictions compared to DNS”, (N. Okong’o, A. Leboissetier and J. Bellan), Physics of Fluids, 20(10), 103305 (16 pages), 2008
  83. “Large Eddy Simulation composition equations for single-phase and two-phase fully multicomponent flows”, (J. Bellan and L. C. Selle), Proc. Combust. Inst., 32, doi:10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.005, 2009
  84. “A posteriori study using a DNS database describing fluid disintegration and binary-species mixing under supercritical pressure: Heptane and Nitrogen”, (E. S. Taskinoglu and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 645, 211-254, 2010
  85. “Small-scale dissipation in binary-species, thermodynamically supercritical, transitional mixing layers”, (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Computers and Fluids, 39, 1112-1124, 2010
  86. “A model of reduced kinetics for alkane oxidation using constituents and species: proof of concept for n-heptane”, (K. G. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 157, 1594-1609, 2010
  87. "A model of reduced oxidation kinetics using constituents and species: iso-octane and its mixtures with n-pentane, iso-hexane and n-heptane”, (K. G. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combustion and Flame, 157, 2184-2197, 2010.
  88. “Subgrid scale models and Large Eddy Simulation of oxygen stream disintegration and mixing with a hydrogen or helium stream at supercritical pressure”, (E. S. Taskinoglu and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 679, 156-193, 2011.
  89. “The subgrid-scale scalar variance under supercritical pressure conditions”, (E. Masi and J. Bellan), Phys. Fluids, 23(8), doi:085101 (22 pages), 2011.
  90. “A new formulation of the Large Eddy Simulation composition equations for two-phase fully-multicomponent turbulent flows”, (M. R. Gloor and J. Bellan), Computers and Fluids, 50, 94-103, 2011.
  91. “Spray control for maximizing energy efficiency and reducing emission in combustion engines”, ( N. Chigier, W. Bachalo, R. Reitz, J. Bellan and M. Herrmann), Atomization and Sprays, 21(7), 553-574, 2011.
  92. “Influence of computational drop representation in LES of a mixing layer with evaporating drops”, (S. Radhakrishnan and J. Bellan), Computers and Fluids, 58, 15-26, 2012.
  93. “Explicit filtering to obtain grid-spacing independent and discretization-order independent Large Eddy Simulation of compressible single-phase flow”, (S. Radhakrishnan and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 697, 399-435, 2012.
  94. “Explicit filtering to obtain grid-spacing independent and discretization-order independent Large Eddy Simulation of two-phase volumetrically-dilute flow with evaporation”, (S. Radhakrishnan and J. Bellan), J. Fluid Mech., 719, 230-267, 2013.
  95. “Multi-species turbulent mixing under supercritical-pressure conditions: modeling, Direct Numerical Simulation and analysis revealing species spinodal decomposition”, ( E. Masi, J. Bellan, K. Harstad and N. Okong’o), J. Fluid Mech., 721, 578-626, 2013.
  96. “Prediction of premixed, heptane and iso-octane jet flames using a reduced kinetic model based on constituents and species”, (K. Harstad and J. Bellan), Combust. Flame, 160, 2404-2421, 2013
  97. “Heavy-alkane oxidation kinetic-mechanism reduction using dominant dynamic variables, self similarity and chemistry tabulation”, (P. D. Kourdis and J. Bellan), Comb. Flame, 161, 1196-1223, 2014
  98. “Irreversible entropy production rate in high-pressure turbulent reactive flows”, (G. Borghesi and J. Bellan), Proc. of the Comb. Inst., doi. 10.1016/j.proci.2014.05.016, 2014

Book Chapters
  1. Liquid Drop Behavior in Dense and Dilute Clusters (J. Bellan), Numerical Approaches to Combustion Modeling, Chapter 18, Eds. Oran E. S. and Boris, J. P., AIAA Progress Series, A. Richard Seebass, Editor-in-Chief, Vol. 135, 547-583, 1991.
  2. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Dense and Dilute Clusters of Drops (J. Bellan), Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on the Mechanics and Combustion of Droplets and Sprays, Dec. 6-10, 1994, Taiwan, Eds. Chigier, N. A. and Chiu, H. H., 177-194, 1994
  3. The Fundamentals of Drop Dynamics and Evaporation in Dense and Dilute Clusters of Drops Embedded into Vortices (J. Bellan), Recent Advances in Spray Combustion: Spray Atomization and Drop Burning. Vol. 1, Chapter 15, Ed. K. K. Kuo, AIAA Progress Series Vol. 166, 381-397, 1996
  4. Characteristics of Supercritical Transitional Temporal Mixing Layers (N. Okong’o and J. Bellan), Proceedings IUTAM Symposium on Turbulent Mixing and Combustion, Kingston, Canada, June 3-6 2001, Eds. Pollard, A. and Candel S., Kluwer Academic Press, Dortrecht, 59-71, 2002.
  5. Droplet Cluster Behavior in Dense and Dilute Regions (J. Bellan), Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers: Aspects of Modeling, Analysis and Design, (Eds. Yang, V., Habiballah, M. and Popp, M.), AIAA Progress Series, Vol. 200, Chapter 8, 323-338, 2005.
  6. Direct and Large Eddy Simulation of Two-Phase Flows with Evaporation (J. Bellan), Direct and Large Eddy Simulations 8 (Ed. Hans Kuerten), ERCOFTAC, Springer Verlag, 2011.

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