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Sarath D. Gunapala's Picture
Address:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
M/S 302-306
4800 Oak Grove Dr.
Pasadena, CA 91109
Phone:
818.354.1880
Fax:
818.393.4540
Email:

Sarath D. Gunapala
Director, Center for Infrared Photodetectors

Education
  • Ph.D.-Physics, University of Pittsburgh, 1985
  • M.S.-Physics, University of Pittsburgh
  • B.S.-Physics, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1979
  • Grade 6- 12 – Nalanda College, Colombo, Sri Lanka (1966 – 1974)

Research Interests
Preference for experimental semiconductor nano-device research which involves semiconductor devices based on quantum wells, wires, dots, and spin-based devices. Special interest in studying novel “artificial” band-gap materials for infrared and detectors and imaging focal planes.

Professional Experience
Director - Center for Infrared Photodetectors, Senior Research Scientist, Principle Member of Engineering Staff, Technology Community Leader, and Manager - Infrared Photonics Technology Group Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA (1992 - present)

Member of Technical Staff AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey (1988-1992)

Research Associate Bell Communication Research (1985 - 1988)

Selected Awards
  • IEEE Fellow, November 2013
  • IEEE Aron Kressel Award, Highest award given by IEEE Photonics Society for the development of photonics devices, July 2013
  • Magellan Award, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 2011
  • Career Award, U.S. Army/RDECOM/CERDEC, Night Vision & Electronic Sensor Directorate, 2011
  • IEEE Distinguish Lecturer Award, April 2010
  • Fellow SPIE, January 2008
  • Keerthi Sri Felicitation, Nalanda Collage, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 2007
  • NASA Group Achievement Award for the development of Hyperspectral QWIP Imager, Washington DC, May 2005
  • NASA Space Act Award: Exceptional Performance, Washington DC, July 2004
  • Lifetime Achievement Award, Sri Lanka Foundation, Los Angeles, USA, 2003
  • NASA Space Act Award, Washington DC, July 2003
  • NASA Space Act Award: Exceptional Performance, Washington DC, July 2002
  • NASA Space Act Award: Exceptional Performance, Washington DC, January 2002
  • Induction to United States Space Foundation Technology Hall of Fame, US Space Foundation, Colorado Springs, CO, 2001
  • Exceptional Achievement Award for Technology Applications Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1999
  • NASA/AIAA Effective Partnership Award, Huntsville, AL, October 29, 1998
  • NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal, Washington DC, April 1996
  • Award for Excellence, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1996
  • Exceptional Achievement Award for Technology Applications Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1995
  • Lew Allen Award for Excellence, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 1994
  • AT&T Performance Award, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1992
  • National Research Council Senior Research Associteship Award, 1991
  • AT&T Performance Award, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1991
  • AT&T Performance Award, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1990
  • Award for outstanding performance, Bell Core, 1987
  • First Class Honor in Physics, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1979

Selected Publications
Dr. Gunapala has given over 200 presentations and over 100 invited presentations at technical conferences. Also, he has authored over 250 publications, including many book chapters on infrared imaging focal plane arrays, and holds twenty two patents. Following is a selected list of his publications.

Book Chapters
  1. S. D. Gunapala, J. K. Liu, J. S. Park, and T. L. Lin, "16 µm Infrared Hot Electron Transistor", Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, edited by H. C. Liu, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Andersson, NATO ASI Series, Vol. 270, pp. 167-176, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.
  2. S. D. Gunapala and K. M. S. V. Bandara, "Recent Developments in Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 21, pp. 113-237, Academic Press, 1995.
  3. S. D. Gunapala, " Infrared radiation ", McGraw-Hill 1997 Yearbook of Science & Technology Encyclopedia, pp. 249-252, December 1996.
  4. S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, “GaAs Infrared Detectors”, Properties of Gallium Arsenide, 3rd Edition, EMIS Datareviews series No. 16, pp. 906-917, An INSPEC publication, 1996.
  5. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, W. Hong, M. Sundaram, R. Carralejo, C. A. Shott, P. D. Maker, and R. E. Muller, “9 Micron Cutoff 640x486 GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Snap-shot Camera", Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Devices, pp. 193-198, Kluwer Academic Publishers, December, 1998.
  6. S. Bandara, S. Gunapala, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, E. Luong, W. Hong and D. Sengupta, “Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Device Physics and Light Coupling”, Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Devices, pp. 43-49, Kluwer Academic Publishers, December, 1998.
  7. S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, “Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Arrays,” Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 62, 197-282, Academic Press, 1999.
  8. S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, “Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP),” Handbook of Thin Film Devices, Vol. 2, 63-99, Academic Press, 2000.
  9. S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, “GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays,” Handbook of Infrared Detection Technologies, 83-117, Elsevier, 2002.
  10. David Z.-Y. Ting, Alexander Soibel, Linda Hoglund, Jean Nguyen, Cory J. Hill, Arezou Khoshakhlagh, and Sarath D. Gunapala, “Type-II Superlattice Infrared Detectors,” Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 84, 1-57, Academic Press, 2011.
  11. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, S. B. Rafol, and D. Z. Ting, “Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors,” Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 84, 59-151, Academic Press, 2011.
  12. D. Z. Ting, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, C. J. Hill, J. M. Mumolo, L. Höglund, J. Nguyen, A. Khoshakhlagh, Sir B. Rafol, J. K. Liu, and S. D. Gunapala, “Mid- and Long-Wavelength Barrier Infrared Detectors,” in The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, M. Razeghi. L. Esaki, and K. von Klitzing, Eds., SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, pp. 379-405, 2013.
  13. Sarath D. Gunapala, Sir B. Rafol, David Z. Ting, Alexander Soibel, John K. Liu, Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Sam A. Keo, Jason M. Mumolo, Linda Höglund, and Jean Nguyen, “Modulation Transfer Function Measurements of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays,” in The Wonder of Nanotechnology: Quantum Optoelectronic Devices and Applications, M. Razeghi. L. Esaki, and K. von Klitzing, Eds., SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, pp. 407-434, 2013.


Papers in Refereed Journals
  1. D. D. Coon, R. P. G. Karunasiri, S. D. Gunapala, and H.-M. Muehlhoff, "IR Detection by Depletion of Trapped Charge in Localized Impurity States of an Extrinsic Semiconductor", International Journal on Infrared and Millimeter Waves 5, 197 (1984).
  2. D. D. Coon, R. P. G. Karunasiri, S. D. Gunapala, and H.-M. Muehlhoff, "A High-Sensitivity Sampling IR Detector", Infrared Phys. 25, 323 (1985).
  3. D. D. Coon, R. P. G. Karunasiri, S. D. Gunapala, and H.-M. Muehlhoff, "Field Ionization IR Spectroscopy of Shallow Impurity Levels", Solid State Communications 53, 1144 (1985).
  4. D. D. Coon and S. D. Gunapala, "New Injection Mode Infrared Detector", J. Appl. Phys. 57, 5525 (1985).
  5. S. D. Gunapala, R. P. G. Karunasiri, and D. D. Coon, "Virtual Level Field Ionization Spectrascopy", Solid State Communication 63, 1165 (1987).
  6. S. D. Gunapala and D. D. Coon, "High-Performance Integrating Infrared Detector", Infrared Phys. 28, 61 (1988).
  7. M. Croft, F. Lu, and S. D. Gunapala, "Unstable Valence Rare Earths Ion Implanted into Transition Metals; Valence Variation Studies", J. Appl. Phys. 63, 3692 (1988).
  8. F. Lu, N. G. Stoffel, R. A. Neifeld, M. Croft, M. L. den Boer, and S. D. Gunapala, "Ce-4f Orbital Coupling to Transition Metal Band Structure: An Ion Implanted Study", Phys. Rev. B 38, 1508 (1988).
  9. R. A. Neifeld, S. D. Gunapala, G. Liang, S. A. Shaheen, M. Croft, J. Price, D. Simmons, and W. Hill, "Systematics of Thin Films Formed by Excimer Laser Ablation: Results on SmBa2Cu3O7", Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 703 (1988).
  10. G. Hasnain, B. F. Levine, S. D. Gunapala, and N. Chand, "Large Photoconductive Gain in Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 608 (1990).
  11. S. D. Gunapala, B. F. Levine, R. A. Logan, T. Tanbun-Ek, and D. A. Humphrey, "GaAs/GaInP Multiquantum Well Long-Wavelength Infrared Detectors Using Bound-to-Continuum Absorption", Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1802 (1990).
  12. S. D. Gunapala, B. F. Levine, L. Pfeiffer, and K. West, "Dependence of the Performance of GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors on Doping and Bias", J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6517 (1991).
  13. S. D. Gunapala, B. F. Levine, and N. Chand, "Bound to Continuum Superlattice Miniband Long Wavelength GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Infrared Detectors", J. Appl. Phys. 70, 305 (1991).
  14. B. F. Levine, S. D. Gunapala, and R. F. Kopf, "Photovoltaic GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Detectors at 4.2 µm Using Indirect AlxGa1-xAs Barriers", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1551 (1991).
  15. S. D. Gunapala, B. F. Levine, D. Ritter, R. Hamm, and M. B. Panish, "InGaAs/InP Long-Wavelength Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2024 (1991).
  16. D. Ritter, R. A. Hamm, M. B. Panish, J. M. Vandenberg, D. Gershoni, S. D. Gunapala, and B. F. Levine, "Metal Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of InP/GaInAs Quantum Well Infrared Detectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 552 (1991).
  17. B. F. Levine, S. D. Gunapala, M. Hong, "Infrared Intersubband Photoinduced Charge Polarization in Asymmetric Quantum Wells", Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1969 (1991).
  18. B. F. Levine, S. D. Gunapala, J. M. Kuo, S. S. Pei, and S. Hui, "Normal Incidence Hole Intersubband Absorption Long Wavelength GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1864 (1991).
  19. S. D. Gunapala, B. F. Levine, D. Ritter, R. Hamm, and M. B. Panish, "InGaAs/InP Hole Intersubband Normal Incidence Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2458 (1992).
  20. S. D. Gunapala, B. F. Levine, D. Ritter, R. Hamm, and M. B. Panish, "Lattice Matched InGaAsP/InP Long-Wavelength Infrared Photodetectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 636 (1992).
  21. B. F. Levine, A. Zussman, S. D. Gunapala, M. T. Asom, J. M. Kuo, ans W. S. Hobson, "Photoexcited Escape Probability, Optical Gain, and Noise in Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors" J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4429 (1992).
  22. J. S. Park, T. L. Lin, E. W. Jones, S. D. Gunapala, G. A. Soli and B. A. Wilson, "Proton irradiation effects on Strained Si1-xGex/Si heterostructure", Appl. Phys. Lett., .63, 3497 (1993).
  23. Sarath D. Gunapala, John K. Liu, True L. Lin, and Jin S. Park, "Very Long Wavelength Intersubband Infrared Hot Electron Transistor", JJAP Special Issue on Solid State Devices and Materials, 33 Part 1 No. 1B, 1994.
  24. S. D. Gunapala, K. M. S. V. Bandara, B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Very Long Wavelength InxGa1-xAs/GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2288 (1994).
  25. S. D. Gunapala, J. S. Park, T. L. Lin, and J. K. Liu, "Very Long Wavelength GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Infrared Hot Electron Transistor", Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3003 (1994).
  26. S. D. Gunapala, K. M. S. V. Bandara, B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, D. L. Sivco, J. S. Park, T. L. Lin, W. T. Pike, and J. K. Liu, "High Performance InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3431 (1994).
  27. K. K. Choi, C. Y. Lee, M. Z. Tidrow, W. H. Chang, and S. D. Gunapala, "Performance Assessment of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", published in Applied Physics Letters 1994.
  28. J. S. Park, T. L. Lin, E. W. Jones, H. M. Del Castillo and S. D. Gunapala, "Long-wavelength stacked SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission infrared detectors using multiple SiGe/Si layers", Appl. Phys. Lett., 64, 2372 (1994).
  29. T. L. Lin, J. S. Park, S. Gunapala, E. W. Jones, and H. M. Del Castillo, "Si0.7Ge0.3/Si Heterojunction Internal Photoemission Long-wavelength Infrared Detector", Optical Engineering, 33, 716 (1994).
  30. T. L. Lin, J. S. Park, S. D. Gunapala, E. W. Jones, and H. M. Del Castillo, "Tailorable Doping-Spike PtSi Infrared Detectors Fabricated by Si Molecular Beam Epitaxy," Jap. J. Appl. Phys., 33, 451-454 (1994).
  31. T. L. Lin, J. S. Park, S. D. Gunapala, E. W. Jones, and H. M. Del Castillo, "Photoresponse Model for Si1-xGex/Si Heterojunction Internal Photoemission Long-wavelength Infrared Detector," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett., Vol. 15, 103 (1994).
  32. G. Sarusi, S. D. Gunapala, J. S. Park, and B. F. Levine, "Design and Performance of Very Long-Wavelength GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors", J. Appl. Phys., 76, 6001 (1994).
  33. S. D. Gunapala, G. Sarusi, J. S. Park, T. L. Lin and B. F. Levine, "Infrared Detectors Reach New Lengths", Physics World, pp. 35-40, December, 1994.
  34. T. L. Lin, J. S. Park, S. D. Gunapala, E. W. Jones, and H. M. Del Castillo, Jr., "Doping-Spike PtSi Schottky Infrared Detectors with Extended Cutoff Wavelengths", IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, V0l. 42, pp. 1216-1220, 1995.
  35. T. L. Lin, J. S. Park, and S. D. Gunapala, "7 µm cutoff PtSi Infrared Detector for High Sensitivity MWIR Applications," IEEE Electron Dev. Lett., Vol. 16, 94 (1995).
  36. Sarath D. Gunapala, Jin S. Park, Gabby Sarusi, True-Lon. Lin, John K. Liu, Paul D. Maker, Richard E. Muller, Craig A. Shott, and Ted Hoelter, " 15 µm 128x128 GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Camera", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 44, pp. 45-50, 1997.
  37. Sarath D. Gunapala, John K. Liu, Jin S. Park, Mani Sundaram, Craig A. Shott, Ted Hoelter, True-Lon Lin, S. T. Massie, Paul D. Maker, Richard E. Muller, and Gabby Sarusi" 9 µm Cutoff 256x256 GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Hand-Held Camera", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 44, pp. 51-57, 1997.
  38. S. D. Gunapala, T. N. Krabach, S. V. Bandara, and J. K. Liu, “Portable Long-wavelength Infrared Camera for Civilian Applications”, Proceedings - 19th International Conference - IEEE/EMBS, pp. 712-717, Oct. 30 - Nov. 2, 1997, Chicago, IL, USA.
  39. D. K. Sengupta, W. Fang, J. I. Malin, J. Li, T. Horton, A. P. Curtis, K. C. Hsieh, S. L. Chuang, H. Chen, M. Feng, G. E. Stillman, L. Li, H. C. Liu, K. M. S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, W. I. Chang, “GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors on GaAs-on-Si substrates”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 71, pp. 78-80, 1997.
  40. S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. K. Liu, E. M. Luong, J. M. Mumolo, W. Hong, D. K. Sengupta, and M. J. McKelvey, "10-16 µm Broadband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector", Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2427 (1998).
  41. Sarath D. Gunapala, Sumith V. Bandara, John K. Liu, Winn Hong, Mani Sundaram, Paul D. Maker, Richard E. Muller, Craig A. Shott, and Ronald Carralejo, “Long-Wavelength 640x486 GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Snap-shot Camera", IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 45, 1890 (1998).
  42. D. K. Sengupta, W. Fang, J. I. Malin, J. Li, T. Horton, A. P. Curtis, K. C. Hsieh, S. L. Chuang, H. Chen, M. Feng, G. E. Stillman, L. Li, H. C. Liu, K. M. S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, W. I. Chang, “GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors on GaAs-on-Si substrates”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 71, pp. 78-80, 1997.
  43. Deepak Sengupta, Vikram Jandhyala, Sangsig Kim, Weich Fang, Jay Malin, Peter Apostolakis, Kwong-Chi Hseih, Yia-Chung, Shun Lien Chuang, Sumith Bandara, Sarath D. Gunapala, Milton Feng, Eric Michielssen, and Greg Stillman, “Red-Shifting and Broadening of Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector’s Response via Impurity-Free Vacancy Disordering", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1998.
  44. D. K. Sengupta, M. B. Weisman, M. Feng, S. L. Chuang, Y. C. Chang, L. Cooper, I. Adesida, I. Bloom, K. C. Hsieh, W. Fang, J. I. Malin, A. P. Curtis, T. Horton, G. E. Stillman, S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, F. S. Pool, J. K. Liu, M. J. McKelvey, E. Luong, W. Hong, J. Mumolo, H. C. Liu, and W. I. Wang, “ Growth and Characterization ofn-Type GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector on GaAs and GaAs-on-Si Substrates", J. of Electronic Materials, pp. 858-865, Vol. 27, 1998.
  45. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, "Significance of the first excited state position in quantum well infrared photodetectors," Microelectronics Journal, 30, no. 10, pp. 1057-1066, Oct. 1999.
  46. S. Gunapala, S. Bandara, J. Liu, S. Rafol, and D. Ting, “Sharp infrared eyes: the journey of QWIPs from concept to large inexpensive sensitive arrays in hand-held infrared cameras”, Opto-Electr. Rev., 7, no. 4, 271-282 (1999).
  47. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, E. M. Luong, N. Stetson, C. A. Shott, J. J. Bock, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, and M. J. McKelvey, “Long-wavelength 256X256 GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Palm-size Camera” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 47, pp. 326-332, 2000.
  48. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, A. Singh, J. K. Liu, S. B. Rafol, E. M. Luong, J. M. Mumolo, N. Q. Tran, J. D. Vincent, C. A. Shott, J. Long, and P. D. LeVan, “640x486 Long-wavelength Two-color GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Array Camera” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 47, pp. 963-971, 2000.
  49. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, A. Singh, J. K. Liu, E. M. Luong, J. M. Mumolo, and P. D. LeVan, “Recent developments and applications of quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays” Physica E, 7, pp. 108-111, 2000.
  50. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, E. M. Luong, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, J. J. Bock, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, P. D. LeVan, R. Chehayeb, C. A. Kukkonen, M. Levy, P. LeVan, and M. A. Fauci, “Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Research and Development at Jet Propulsion Laboratory”, Sensors and Materials, Vol. 12, pp. 327-351, (2000).
  51. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, E. M. Luong, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, J. J. Bock, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, P. D. LeVan, R. Chehayeb, C. A. Kukkonen, M. Levy, P. LeVan, and M. A. Fauci,” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 42, pp. 267-282, (2001).
  52. S. V. Bandara, S. Gunapala, S. Rafol, D. Ting, J. Liu, J. Mumolo, T. Trinh, A. W. K. Liu, and J. M. Fastenau,” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 42, pp. 237-242, (2001).
  53. D. Z. –Y. Ting, S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. K. Liu, S. B. Rafol, and J. M. Mumolo,” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 42, pp. 205-210, (2001).
  54. Victor Ryzhii, Irina Khmyrova, Tadao Ishibashi, Sumith V. Bandara, and Sarath D. Gunapala,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 40, pp. 3137-3142, (2001).
  55. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, E. M. Luong, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, J. J. Bock, M. E. Ressler, M. W. Werner, P. D. LeVan, R. Chehayeb, C. A. Kukkonen, M. Levy, P. LeVan, and M. A. Fauci,” OPTO-ELECTRONICS REVIEW, Vol. 9, pp. 150-163, (2001).
  56. S. D. Gunapala and S. V. Bandara, “GaAs/AlGaAs MULTI-QUANTUM WELL-BASED INFRARED FOCAL PLANE ARRAYS FOR INFRARED IMAGING APPLICATIONS,” International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, Vol. 12, No.3, 99-121, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2002.
  57. Sarath D. Gunapala, Sumith V. Bandara, John K. Liu, Sir B. Rafol, and Jason M. Mumolo, “640x512 Pixel Long-wavelength Infrared Narrowband, Multiband, and Broadband QWIP Focal Plane Arrays” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 50, pp. 2353-2360, 2003.
  58. S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. K. Liu, S. B. Rafol, D. Z. Ting, J. M. Mumolo, R. W. Chuang, T. Q. Trinh, J. H. Liu, K. K. Choi, M. Jhabvala, J. M. Fastenau, and W. K. Liu,” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 44, pp. 369-376, (2003).
  59. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, C. A. Shott, R. Jones, J. Woolaway II, J. M. Fastenau, A. K. Liu, M. Jhabvala, and K. K. Choi” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 44, pp. 411-426, (2003).
  60. M. Jhabvala, S. Gunapala, D. Reuter, K. K. Choi, S. Bandara, J. Liu, A. La, S. Banks, J. Cho, T. Hwang, S. Tsay, D. Rafol, H. Huet, N. Chauvet, and T. Huss” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 44, pp. 445-456, (2003).
  61. S. Chakrabarti, A. D. Stiff-Roberts, P. Bhattacharya, S. Gunapala, S. Bandara, S. B. Rafol, and S. W. Kennerly, “High-Temperature Operation of InAs-GaAs Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors With Large Responsivity and Detectivity” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 16, pp. 1361-1363, 2004.
  62. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, C. J. Hill, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, J. T. Trinh, M. Z. Tidrow, and P. D. LeVan, “1024 x 1024 Pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications”, Semicond. Sci. Technol., Vol. 20, pp. 473-480 (2005).
  63. S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, J. K. Liu, S. B. Rafol, C. J. Hill, D. Z.-Y. Ting, J. M. Mumolo, T. Q. Trinh, J. M. Fastenau and A. W. K. Liu , “Tuning and Tailoring of Broad-band Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector Responsivity Spectrum”, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 86, pp. 151104-151106 (2005).
  64. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, C. J. Hill, D. Z. Ting, J. K. Liu, S. B. Rafol, E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Mumolo, S. A. Keo, S. Krishna, Y.-C. Chang, and C. A. Shott “640x512 pixels long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) imaging focal plane array”, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 43, pp. 230 – 237 (2007).
  65. S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, C. J. Hill, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, J. T. Trinh, M. Z. Tidrow, and P. D. LeVan, “Development of mid-wavelength and long-wavelength megapixel portable QWIP imaging cameras”, Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 47, pp. 67-75, 2005.
  66. S. V. Bandara, S. Gunapala, J. K. Liu, C. J. Hill, S. B. Rafol, J. M. Mumolo, and J. T. Trinh, “Multi-band and broad-band infrared detectors based on III-V materials for spectral imaging instruments”, Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 47, pp. 15-21, 2005.
  67. S. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, C. J. Hill, S. B. Rafol, D. Zalazar, J. Woolaway, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays”, Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 50, pp. 217-226, 2007.
  68. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, C. J. Hill, D. Z.Ting, J. K. Lu, S. B. Rafol, E. R. Blazejewski, J. M. Mumolo, S. A. Keo, S. Krishna, Y. C. Chang, and C. A. Shott, “Demonstration of 640x512 pixel long- wavelength infrared (LWIR) quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP)imaging focal plane array”, Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 50, pp. 149 - 155, 2007.
  69. D. Z.-Y. Ting, Y.-C. Chang, S.V. Bandara, C.J. Hill and S. D. Gunapala, “Band structure and impurity effects on optical properties of quantum well and quantum dot infrared photodetectors,” Infrared Physics and Technology 50, 136-141 (2007).
  70. S. V. Bandara, S. D. Gunapala, D.Z. Ting, J.K. Liu, C.J. Hill, J.M. Mumolo and S. Keo, “Monolithically integrated near-infrared and mid-infrared detector array for spectral imaging,” Infrared Physics and Technology 50, 211-216 (2007).
  71. C. J. Hill, J. Li, D. Riegher, and S. D. Gunapala, "MBE grown type-II MWIR and LWIR superlattice photodiodes" Infrared Physics and Technology 50, 187-190 (2007).
  72. David Z.-Y. Ting, Yia-Chung Chang, Sumith V. Bandara, and Sarath D. Gunapala “Quantum well intrasubband photodetector for far infrared and terahertz radiation detection” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91, pp. 073510 (2007).
  73. S. Krishna, S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, C. Hill, and D. Z. Ting, “Quantum Dot Based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays”, IEEE Special Issue on Optoelectronic Devices Based on Quantum Dots, 95, pp. 1838-1852 (2007).
  74. Jean Nguyen, Alexander Soibel, David Z.-Y. Ting, Cory J. Hill, Mike C. Lee, and Sarath D. Gunapala “Low dark current long-wave infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors” Appl. Phys. Lett., 97, pp. 051108 (2010).
  75. William R. Johnson , Simon J. Hook, Pantazis Mouroulis, Daniel W. Wilson, Sarath D. Gunapala, Cory J. Hill, Jason M. Mumolo, Bjorn T. Eng, “Quantum well earth science testbed”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 430-433, (2009).
  76. Jian V. Li, Cory J. Hill, Jason M. Mumolo, Sarath Gunapala, Shin Mou, and Shun-Lien Chung, “Midinfrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes toward room temperature operation”, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 93, Article Number: 163505, OCT 20 2008.
  77. David Z.-Y. Ting, Sumith V. Bandara, Sarath D. Gunapala, Jason M. Mumolo, Sam A. Keo, Cory J. Hill, John K. Liu, Edward R. Blazejewski, Sir B. Rafol, and Yia-Chung Chang, “Sub Monolayer Infrared Photodetectors”, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 94, pp. 111107 (2009).
  78. Cory J. Hill *, Alexander Soibel, Sam A. Keo, Jason M. Mumolo, David Z. Ting, Sarath D. Gunapala, “Demonstration of large format mid-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays based on superlattice and BIRD detector structures”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 348-352, (2009).
  79. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J.M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen , B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. C. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, M. Z. Tidrow, “1024 X 1024 Format pixel co-located simultaneously readable dual-band QWIP focal plane”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 395-398, (2009).
  80. David Z.-Y. Ting a, Sumith V. Bandara, Jason Mumolo, Sam A. Keo, Jean Nguyen, H. C. Liu, C.Y. Song, Yia-Chung Chang, Sir B. Rafol, Cory J. Hill, Sarath D. Gunapala, Alexander Soibel, John K. Liu, Edward Blazejewski, “Dots, QWISPs, and BIRDs”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 294-298, (2009).
  81. Soibel, Sumith V. Bandara, David Z. Ting, John K. Liu, Jason M. Mumolo, Sir B. Rafol, William R. Johnson, Daniel W. Wilson, Sarath D. Gunapala, “A super-pixel QWIP focal plane array for imaging multiple waveband temperature sensor”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 403-407, (2009).
  82. Jean Nguyen, David Z. Ting, Cory J. Hill, Alexander Soibel, Sam A. Keo, Sarath D. Gunapala, “Dark current analysis of InAs/GaSb superlattices at low temperatures”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 317-321, (2009).
  83. Brian Simolon, Naseem Aziz, Scott Cogan, Eric Kurth, Simon Lam, Susan Petronio, James Woolaway, Sumith Bandara, Sarath Gunapala, Jason Mumolo, “High performance two-color one megapixel CMOS ROIC for QWIP detectors”, Journal of Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 52, pp. 391-394, (2009).
  84. David Z.-Y. Ting, Cory J. Hill, Alexander Soibel, Sam A. Keo, Jason M. Mumolo, Jean Nguyen, and Sarath D. Gunapala, “A high-performance long wavelength superlattice complementary barrier infrared detector,” Appl. Phy. Lett. 95(2), 023508 (2009).
  85. C.J. Hill, A. Soibel, D.Z.-Y. Ting, S.A. Keo, J.M. Mumolo, J. Nguyen, M. Lee and S.D. Gunapala, “High temperature operation of long-wavelength infrared superlattice detector with suppressed dark current,” Electronics Letters 45(21) 1089-1090 (2009).
  86. S. D. Gunapala, S. V. Bandara, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, B. Simolon, J. Woolaway, S. Wang, W. Li, P. D. LeVan, and M. Z. Tidrow, “Demonstration of Megapixel Dual-band QWIP Focal Plane Array”, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.285-293, 2010.
  87. Alexander Soibel, David Z.-Y. Ting, Cory J. Hill, Mike Lee, Jean Nguyen, Sam A. Keo, Jason M. Mumolo, and Sarath D. Gunapala, “Gain and noise of high-performance long wavelength superlattice infrared detectors”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111102 (2010).
  88. S. D. Gunapala, Senior Member, IEEE, D. Z. Ting, Senior Member, IEEE, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, A. Soibel, S. B. Rafol, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, M. C. Lee, J. K. Liu, and B. Yang “Demonstration of a 1024x1024 Pixel InAs–GaSb Superlattice Focal Plane Array” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 22, pp. 1856-1858, 2010.
  89. C. J. Hill, A. Soibel, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, D. Z. Ting, and S. D. Gunpala, “Mid-infrared quantum dot barrier photodetectors with extended cutoff wavelengths”, Electronic Letters, 46 (18), 2010.
  90. S.D. Gunapala, D.Z. Ting, C.J. Hill, J. Nguyen, A. Soibel, S.B. Rafol, S.A. Keo, J.M. Mumolo, M.C. Lee, J.K. Liu, B. Yang, A. Liao, “Large area III–V infrared focal planes”, Infrared Physics & Technology, 54, pp. 155-163 (2011).
  91. Soibel, J. Nguyen, L. Hoglund, C. J. Hill, D. Z. Ting, S. A. Keo, J. M. Mumolo, M. C. Lee, S. D. Gunapala, “InAs/GaSb superlattice based long-wavelength complementary barrier infrared detectors: growth, processing and characterization”, Infrared Physics & Technology, 54, pp. 247-251 (2011).
  92. D. Z. –Y. Ting, A. Soibel, C. J. Hill, J. Nguyen, S. A. Keo, S. B. Rafol, B. Yang, M. C. Lee, J. M. Mumolo, J. K. Liu, L. Hoglund, S. D. Gunapala, “Antimonide superlattice complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)”, Infrared Physics & Technology, 54, pp. 267-272 (2011).
  93. S. B. Rafol, A. Soibel, A. Khoshakhlagh, J. Nguyen, J. K. Liu, J. M. Mumolo, S. A. Keo, L. Hoeglund D. Z. Ting, and S. D. Gunapala, “Performance of a 1/4 VGA Format Long-Wavelength Infrared Antimonides Based Superlattice Focal Plane Array”, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 48, pp. 878-884 (2012).
  94. Jean Nguyen, Alexander Soibel, Sir B. Rafol, Arezou Khoskhlagh, John K. Liu, Jason M. Mumolo, Linda Hoeglund, Sam A. Keo, David Z.-Y. Ting, and Sarath D. Gunapala, “Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Arrays for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging”, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 24, pp. 1581-1583, 2012.
  95. David Z. -Y. Ting, Alexander Soibel, Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Jean Nguyen, Linda Hoglund, Sam Keo, Jason Mumolo, and Sarath Gunapala, “Exclusion, extraction, and junction placement effects in the complementary barrier infrared detector”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 102, 121109 (2013).
  96. Arezou Khoshakhlagh, Linda Hoglund, David Z. Ting, Cory J. Hill, Sam A. Keo, Alexander Soibel, Jean Nguyen, and Sarath Gunapala, “High Performance Long-Wave Type-II Superlattice Infrared Detectors”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 31(3), 03C122 (2013).

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